Test cases are a set of actions that help you verify whether or not your software is functioning as it is required to.
Test cases in software testing are a key part of test documentation
They outline the steps in which a tester follows to verify a piece of software is behaving as required. Test cases can be organized into groups called test scenarios or test suites. A group of cases can be used to test a specific area of the software in it’s entirety.
A good test case should have a strong title, include a description, list any preconditions, and include the expected results. Most importantly, it should list clear and concise steps. After, all, the “steps” are the main ingredient of a test case; they answer the question, “how should this be tested”.
A test case can come in a few different flavors; positive, negative, and destructive. Positive test cases verify the software is doing what it’s supposed to do. Negative test cases verify the software is not doing what it’s not supposed to do. A destructive test case examines scenarios the software can handle before it breaks or, “destructs”. Each type is equally important.
The very act of writing test cases has value. It allows the writer/tester to think like the user and come at the test from different angles. It ensures you’re not forgetting to test crucial parts of the application which leads to wide test coverage. After the test cases are written, the tester uses them to conduct tests. As the tester executes the tests, they compare the expected results to the actual results. If these don’t line up, there’s likely a bug in the software.
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